Potato Farming: Cultivation, Planting, and Harvesting Process

potato farming

Potatoes are a staple food crop that has numerous uses in the food industry. A significant part of the globe’s population ingests this vegetable regularly. Furthermore, the main reason that encourages such a huge amount of potato eating is their compatibility with any other vegetable. Therefore, it takes up the 4th position in the list of the main food crops. 

Aside from the pleasant taste, potatoes are a good investment. Potato Cultivation, or large-scale potato production, have exponentially been helping farmers boost their income. By utilizing the latest technology and the best modern farming practices, potatoes give significantly higher yields than other crops, thus leading to revenue when compared to other crops.

In addition, potatoes are also employed in a variety of other popular fast foods, including potato chips or fries. Therefore, fast food remains the biggest consumer of this vegetable due to the high quantities that they use to serve the customers. It likewise becomes glucose, starch, and alcohol in its commercial applications.

Potato Cultivation In India

India is a major producer of potatoes in the world. A considerable part of the Indian population depends on potato farming due to their huge income. On the other hand, the new farmers are accepting potato farming since they only need a few costs. 

Hence, the following is your comprehensive guide for potato farming. Therefore, go through this blog till the end to find out the whole system of the process of potato planting and growing. Besides, you will also know the profits realized from the sale of potatoes.

Potato Farming Fun Facts

  • Potatoes are available in over 1000 varieties.
  • Potatoes are cultivated in over 100 countries all over the planet.
  • It originated from the same family of tobacco.
  • Potatoes served as the crop that could be cultivated in space.

Types of Potatoes

In India, commercial and profitable varieties of potatoes are Kufri Pukhraj, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Bahar, Bhura Aloo, Kufri Chipsona, Kufri Sindhuri, Kufri Arun, Kufri Chandramukhi, and Kufri Khyati. They are considered a profitable variety. Hence, the farmers highly propose these potato varieties.

Suitable Soil & Weather Conditions For Potato Cultivation

The tubers require well-drained soil. Hence, it’s crucial to avoid potato cultivation in waterlogged land. Additionally, alkaline and saline soils pose threats to potato plants. Opting for loose soil facilitates tuber growth; sandy and loamy soils, supplemented with organic manure and aeration, are ideal. 

Maintaining a pH level of 5.2 to 6.4 creates an optimal growing environment. Regarding climate, a rain temperature of 24℃ is conducive to potato cultivation, with tubers requiring 24℃. Thus, temperatures ranging from 14°C to 20°C ensure a good yield. For efficient farming, consider utilizing a Mahindra 585 tractor.

The Sowing Period And Process Of Potato Cultivation

Potatoes grow in regions that are under cold temperatures because the place is in favourable conditions. Nonetheless, the sowing-harvesting season for the potato is dependent on the locality. 

For example, the sowings of spring crops, i.e. from January to February in Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. Meanwhile, the summer potato crop is sown in May. Yet in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, the sowing is finished by the end of June. The other potatoes are sown as rabi crops from the month of October to November.

Techniques Of Potato Farming

Potatoes need to be grown in a line. The space between each row should be at least 3 feet. As for the growth, you can dig a trench that is 6 to 8 inches deep. Then, plant them at the 12 to 15 inches spacing between each Potato. The sowing of potatoes is one of the common potato farming methods where the tubers sprout. Thus, to grow potatoes, we do not have to treat seeds. 

Moreover, the soil needs to be mounded to ensure the uniform distribution of nutrients. It is important to remember that in these potato-growing techniques, it is critical to use a cultivator in order to obtain good tillage.

Another thing is that if we want to avoid growing potatoes from sets, we should provide the soil with some organic waste and rotten manure. The next planting step is to put the potato seeds 30cm apart and 10cm deep.

Planting for Potato Farming

Any crop must be cultivated with proper care. Hence, it is vital to manage fertilizers and precise watering at the proper timing properly. Through these means, we would obtain a better yield for more money. 

Irrigation Requirements

During the summer season, potato plants require sufficient watering. It’s essential to ensure proper irrigation during flowering and other growth stages. Besides tubers, the plants blossom during this period, increasing their need for water. Consistent periodic watering is crucial until the water level reaches 1 to 2 inches. 

Rain also plays a vital role in potato cultivation, contributing to higher yields. Once the plant’s leaves turn green and begin to wilt, watering should cease. This helps damaged plants heal faster, ultimately leading to better quality and quantity. Mahindra JIVO 225 DI 4WD NT assists in various stages of potato farming, ensuring efficient and productive cultivation.

Fertilizer And Manure

The amount of fertilizer needed for potato cultivation varies in different types of variety of soil. For example, volcanic soils have small amounts of phosphorus. Thus, we need to give fertilizers to meet little phosphorus. Nevertheless, organic fertilizers will be applied at the beginning stage, and this will guarantee high-quality potato output. The reason is that organic fertilizers have a good soil structure and enough plant nutrition. In addition to this, the amount of the fertilizer depends upon the size of the crop field.

Regarding the manure needs for potatoes, we can use composted manure, like animal dung, which would work as well. In the first place, apply compost to the soil in the autumn season before sowing, and let bacteria processing the composition of microbes help with the easy absorption of nutrients. Next, apply manure just over the entire field of potatoes. After, a good hoeing is necessary in order for the soil to be properly tilled.

Potato Harvesting Process

Potatoes should be harvested three to four months after sowing, depending on the cultivation zone, soil variety, and physical environment. In hilly regions, harvesting is typically done when the soil lacks moisture. To harvest potatoes, carefully dig around the plants to ensure a good yield of quality produce. Utilizing a tractor can facilitate the process efficiently.


We have shown the whole potato cultivation process using the different potato planting methods that we have mentioned. Plus, the blog blogged all types of potatoes. In addition, we can also adjust small-scale potato farming with the appropriate equipment and resources. Also, different methods of cultivation, including aeroponic potato cultivation, are in great demand.