Guidance Of Beneficial Cucumber Farming In India

Cucumber is known from the Cucurbitaceae family and is a vital summer vegetable crop grown throughout India. The cucumber plant has a great habit of climbing or trailing.  The tender Cucumber can be consumed raw or with salt in a salad. Cucumber is also used in daily serving in the house. In addition, cucumber seeds can be used in oil extraction.

Requirement of climatic condition

The cucumber crop needs a moderately warm temperature and develops best at temperatures between 20°C and 24°C. It’s not suitable for frost situations.

Suitable Soil for Planting Cucumber

Cucumber can be raised in expansive soils, from sandy loam soils to clay soils with good waste. Ensure the soil contains organic matter by adding organic compost or any FMY (Farm Yard Manure) for higher yield. Soil pH should be within 5.5, and 6.7 which is beneficial for optimum growth.

Soil Suitability for Cucumber Cultivation

The main field should be prepared thoroughly for the planting of seeds. Plough the land around four times and form long tubes 1.5 meters apart.

Cucumber Seed Treatment 

Sow the cucumber seeds from June or January to April. About 3 kg of cucumber seeds is needed for a hectare. Treat the cucumber roots with Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 grams/kg, Trichoderma viride 4 grams/kg, or Carbendazim 2 grams/kg of seeds before planting.

Cucumber Sowing method

The cucumber seed is planted by dibbling at a distance of 1.5 m to 2.5 m (row to row) x 60 cm to 90 cm. (Plant spacing). Two to three cucumber seeds are planted in each pit. Layout in Ring & basing system is preferred. For plantation farmers, choose the Eicher 380 tractor model because it offers maximum productivity. 

Manure and Fertilizers of Cucumber

40 to 50 cartload well-decomposed FYM (Farmyard Manure) should be added at the time of soil preparation. For example, 25 kg P/ha 50 kg N, Should be given ½ N, and whole phosphorus should be presented when sowing cucumber seeds.

Irrigation for Cucumber crop

Drip Irrigation is the most productive method for cucumber farming. Install a drip irrigation system with primary and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5meter. Place the drippers in lateral lines at a gap of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities, respectively. For summer, crop watering should be given to maintain moisture, and for the rainy season, crop irrigation is needed. For irrigation purposes, the Mahindra 575 tractor model is best for farmers. 

Weed control operations of Cucumber

Shallow farming can be given during the early stages of cucumber plant germination to control the weeds. In addition, herbicides may be used for controlling weeds.

Pests of Cucumber

The foremost disease in cucumber growing is Downy mildew, and it can be controlled by applying Mancozeb or Chlorothalonil 2 g/lit twice at 12 days intervals. On the other hand, the Fruit fly’s major bug can be exploited by (1 Picking the affected cucumbers and destroying them.2) Neem oil 3.0 %  as a foliar treatment as need-based.

Harvesting of Cucumbers

Harvesting can be made 40 to 45 days after planting. So on an average of 8 to 10, harvests can be done. Timely picking of Cucumber is more necessary for better quality fruit. Yield 8 to 10 t/ha in 80 to 90 days for salad purposes.

Varieties Of Cucumber 

Ashley

This heirloom cultivar produces dark green, six to eight-inch fruits, slightly tapered on the end of the stem. 

A vining type, ‘Ashley’ was bred at the South Carolina Truck Experimental Station in Charleston in 1956 for the south fresh product business. It is a cross-linking of ‘Puerto Rico 40’ and ‘Marketer.’

Burpless 

This hybrid vining type offers thin fruits up to 12 inches long, but they usually are best picked at eight or 10 inches.

This variety opposes downy mildew and mosaic virus with thin, mild flesh and dark green skin with no hint of pain.

Long vines will require staking or trellising. Ready to collect in 50 days, regular picking will support the vines to provide more fruit.

Bush Champion

‘Bush Champion’ is a productive producer of eight to 11-inch fruit on compact plants. This hybrid bush type gives straight, crisp, bright green cucumbers in just 60 days.

Ideal for receptacle growing or raised bed planting, this Burpee exclusive is opposing to mosaic virus.

Diva

Diva is a hybrid cultivar that provides semi-glossy, thin-skinned fruits which are six to eight inches long.

‘Diva’ is a primarily seedless variety with a sweet, mild flavour. High yields on healthy vines are ready to collect in 58 days. This cultivar is resistant to scab and understanding downy and powdery mildew.

Early Pride

Early Pride is a hybrid cultivar that shows dark green, upright fruits eight to nine inches long.

As a result, vines thrive up a trellis or frame and produce an abundant harvest. With a mild flavour, these burpless cucumbers are ready to pick in 55 days.

Long Green Improved

‘Long Green Improved’ is a prolific heirloom with good, 10 to 12-inch fruits with dark green skin.

Initially introduced in 1842, this cultivar was bred from an even older variety, ‘Long Green Turkey,’ beginning back to as early as 1778.

Vigorous, robust vines will need staking for reliable, uniform fruits that mature in 65 days. This variety is well-suited to both slicing and pickling.

Marketer

‘Marketer’ is an open-pollinated type with a sweet, mild flavour. It was first introduced in 1942. A winner of the All-America Selections prize in the edibles section in 1943, it’s ideal for hot, humid South latitudes.

Dark green, smooth, slight fruits grow eight to nine bits long on vigorous plants and are ready to pick after 55 days.

‘Marketer’ was bred by Associated Seed Growers in Connecticut and is a cross between ‘Straight Eight’ and ‘Vaughan.’ 

Marketmore 76

‘Marketmore 76’ is a modern heirloom cultivar with effective disease resistance. Dark green, slender, thick-skinned fruits include eight to nine bits long and mature in 67 days.

Dr Henry Munger developed the original ‘Marketmore’ variety at Cornell University in 1968, and in 1976 he released ‘Marketmore 76,’ a vigorous, open-pollinated strain.

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