By modern science, we understand the knowledge that arises from a particular process of inquiry, reasoning and reflection, subjected to a method of analysis. For a speech to be considered scientific, a set of characteristics must be met. Let’s look at each one separately.
1. It is general and open
Science goes from the particular to the universal and, in this sense, it is general. Science is said to be open to the extent that it is receptive to research in each and every one of the areas of life, as long as they are susceptible to being studied. Therefore, science does not establish a priori judgments.
2. It is specialized
Over the years, modern science has become more specialized, giving rise to very specific and concrete areas of research that behave like authentic study universes. Each scientist is a specialist in a specific area of knowledge. For example, biotechnology.
3. It’s factual
Science is said to be factual insofar as it studies concrete events that occur in real life.
4. It is based on a method
For science to be talked about, there must always be a verifiable research method, whether we are talking about pure or social science.
So science is said to be methodical. Anything that involves a method declared verifiable, not subject to mere speculation, is part of scientific thinking.
5. Go to experimentation or experience
Science looks for the mechanisms to be able to measure in the experience the phenomena that are intended to study.
Therefore, it is empirical. If speculation is your starting point, experimentation will be the means to reach coherent conclusions that confirm or deny the hypothesis.
6. It has an analytical character
Science sets out to analyze in detail the phenomena or issues that it develops, in order to find the complex framework that explains their nature, their causes, their consequences and their implications.
7. Seeks to establish general laws
The sciences try to establish general or universal laws that explain the behaviour of phenomena. In this sense, it is also said to be legal.
From the case study, science seeks to establish general patterns to be able to apply them to similar phenomena in the future.
This is typical of both the pure sciences and the social sciences. In this, they differ from the humanities, although they share with these some characteristics such as the valuation of the method.
8. It allows predicting certain phenomena or behaviours
Part of the scientific vocation is to be able to collect enough information to predict, with a certain degree of accuracy, certain phenomena, reactions or consequences, this in order to be able to draw up plans for prevention, recovery and/or use. The predictive nature of science is one of the great inputs of applied technology.
9. Its conclusions are provisional
In science, although general laws are sought, it is understood that every conclusion is provisional, that is, every conclusion is subject to being discussed and amended in time, without detracting from previous work.
10. Can be checked
Science is, by definition, verifiable. This means that everything determined through modern science has been proven and can be verified by the rest of the scientific community.
11. Accumulate knowledge
There is talk of the cumulative nature of science in relation to the collection of scientific documentary material, paid throughout history that, regardless of being overcome, serves as an input for the development of new questions and working hypotheses.
Thus, no scientific finding is ruled out by the mere fact of being surpassed with the appearance of new findings but always remains available through documentation as an itinerary of clues for future research.